xorbits.numpy.random.rayleigh(scale=1.0, size=None)[source]#

Draw samples from a Rayleigh distribution.

The \(\chi\) and Weibull distributions are generalizations of the Rayleigh.


New code should use the ~numpy.random.Generator.rayleigh method of a ~numpy.random.Generator instance instead; please see the random-quick-start.

  • scale (float or array_like of floats, optional) – Scale, also equals the mode. Must be non-negative. Default is 1.

  • size (int or tuple of ints, optional) – Output shape. If the given shape is, e.g., (m, n, k), then m * n * k samples are drawn. If size is None (default), a single value is returned if scale is a scalar. Otherwise, np.array(scale).size samples are drawn.


out – Drawn samples from the parameterized Rayleigh distribution.

Return type

ndarray or scalar

See also


which should be used for new code.


The probability density function for the Rayleigh distribution is

\[P(x;scale) = \frac{x}{scale^2}e^{\frac{-x^2}{2 \cdotp scale^2}}\]

The Rayleigh distribution would arise, for example, if the East and North components of the wind velocity had identical zero-mean Gaussian distributions. Then the wind speed would have a Rayleigh distribution.



Brighton Webs Ltd., “Rayleigh Distribution,” https://web.archive.org/web/20090514091424/http://brighton-webs.co.uk:80/distributions/rayleigh.asp


Wikipedia, “Rayleigh distribution” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rayleigh_distribution


Draw values from the distribution and plot the histogram

>>> from matplotlib.pyplot import hist  
>>> values = hist(np.random.rayleigh(3, 100000), bins=200, density=True)  

Wave heights tend to follow a Rayleigh distribution. If the mean wave height is 1 meter, what fraction of waves are likely to be larger than 3 meters?

>>> meanvalue = 1  
>>> modevalue = np.sqrt(2 / np.pi) * meanvalue  
>>> s = np.random.rayleigh(modevalue, 1000000)  

The percentage of waves larger than 3 meters is:

>>> 100.*sum(s>3)/1000000.  
0.087300000000000003 # random

This docstring was copied from numpy.random.